By Marc Picard
This textbook is designed to fill simple wishes. One is for a transparent and simple presentation of the rudiments of articulatory phonetics that's geared in particular to the necessities of the (future) language instructor, and never completely to the scholar of linguistics, and within which the elemental techniques and terminology are brought through English instead of various languages. a good larger desire, maybe, and one who has long past unfulfilled for too lengthy, is for an easy yet kind of entire review of the phonetic stock of North American French.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Comparative Phonetics of English and French in North America
Dental; 3. alveolar; 4. palatal; 5. velar; 6. uvular; 7. pharyngeal; 8. glottal; 9. apical; 10. dorsal. 28 COMPARATIVE PHONETICS OF ENGLISH AND FRENCH red to as segments. They are evidently the basic constituents of speech, combining as they do in multitudinous ways to form syllables which, in turn, are strung together to form the meaningful units we call words. Over and above these various segmental sequences are certain fluctuations and variations in pitch — tone and intonation — and stress that also constitute an integral part of any language.
1, English vowels have a very strong tendency to change to schwa, or even to disappear altogether in certain environments, when shifts in stress place ment leave them unaccented, as the following pairs illustrate: /fót /fәtag әgjæf/ xәfI/ photograph photography /kamp(ә)әә1/ /kәmpǽjәsәn/ comparable comparison /iεkәid/ /íәkóid/ record (to) record /lǽb(ә)iәt / /lәbóiәt(9)úl/ laboratory (North American) laboratory (British) /ǽlәgéšәn/ /әlέj/ allegation allege It should be realized that such stress-induced vowel shifts are peculiar to English and not an intrinsic property of language.
In fact, because the velar articulation of /w/ is accompanied by lip rounding as in /u/, it is classified as a labio velar. Table 8. 6 To conclude this preliminary overview of the consonants of English, spe cial mention must be made of three segments which manifest certain pecu liarities. 8) (and Table 3 (p. 17)). Although it has traditionally been classified as a glottal fricative because it ENGLISH PHONETICS /y/ 25 /w/ FIGURE 10. 26 COMPARATIVE PHONETICS OF ENGLISH AND FRENCH is produced by bringing the vocal cords sufficiently close together to obstruct the airflow, thereby creating turbulence in the glottis, this segment can also be viewed as a glottal approximant because the tongue has no fixed position during its articulation: it basically assumes the configuration of whatever vowel it precedes.
An Introduction to the Comparative Phonetics of English and French in North America by Marc Picard