By Stacy Fang-Ching Teng
The Puyuma humans stay in southeastern Taiwan in Taitung urban and Peinan Township in Taitung County . There are nonetheless fourteen extant Formosan (Austronesian) languages in Taiwan , yet basically 13 indigenous teams are formally recognized by way of the Taiwanese executive. the current examine investigates the Nanwang dialect of the Puyuma language, spoken by way of the folks in Nanwang and Paoshang Suburbs of Taitung urban in southern Taiwan .The objective of this grammar is to explain the phonology and morphosyntax of Puyuma. The paintings is descriptive in nature, and the theoretical framework hired is uncomplicated Linguistic concept (BLT), following Dixon (1994, 1997) and Dryer (2006). BLT emphasis es the necessity to describe every one language in its personal phrases, instead of impos ing on it recommendations derived from different languages . hence, during this learn, the writer abandons conventional phrases utilized by linguists learning Philippine-type languages, similar to 'agent focus', 'patient focus', 'locative focus', or 'instrumental focus', and replaces them with the phrases like 'transitive' and 'intransitive' which are extra commonly used to lots of the world's linguists.
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Additional info for A reference grammar of Puyuma, an Austronesian language of Taiwan
6. The table was created by looking at the Puyuma words in my own fieldnotes, and also in Cauquelin’s (1991b), Ting’s (1978), Li’s (1991), and Lin’s (1984) materials. 6 indicate that the examples with such consonant clusters are found in the corpus. No examples of consonant clusters with two identical phonemes or two homorganic oral stops are found, and are marked in grey. 7 apicalisation 7 non-apicalisation senay [s*naj] ngiseL [%is&'] semipsip [s*mipsip] masenkin [mas&nkin] seLap [s*'ap] benaseng [b&nas&%] asepan [as*pan] masemek [mas*m&k] benabase [b&nabas*] Sometimes the schwa becomes an apical vowel after /r/.
Kasalengseng ! 1 General rule for stress assignment Word stress in Puyuma falls on the last syllable, and is thus non-phonemic. Puyuma word stress is mainly marked by greater intensity, a higher degree of pitch and longer duration. 3. 4 illustrates the pitch and intensity of the phrase inaba=ku “I am fine”, and it shows that the syllable with the highest degree of pitch is not on the last syllable of inaba; on the contrary, the last syllable (ba) has the lowest degree of pitch. In terms of intensity, the last syllable still carries greater intensity than the first two syllables (i and na).
8 From my notes, schwa deletion occurs most often (but not always) when the schwa is preceded by a bilabial sound (p, b or m) or a velar stop. 4: Pitch and intensity of inaba=ku “I am fine” 32 A Reference Grammar of Puyuma An affix counts as part of the word in stress assignment, but a clitic does not. Because stress is word-final, stress is diagnostic only for suffixes and enclitics. 9 beray [b$ráj] ! tu=beray-ay [tub$rajáj] tiktik [tiktík] ! 4. inaba [inabá] ! 2 Stress shift in interrogative sentences The stress of the final word in an interrogative sentence is shifted from the last syllable to the penultimate syllable.
A reference grammar of Puyuma, an Austronesian language of Taiwan by Stacy Fang-Ching Teng